Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Essay on Lab Report 1 Essay on Lab Report 1 Rachel Pepe Microbiology Lab Safety Lab #1 1. Introduction In this lab, we focused on skills we will be using throughout this course. This lab specifically focused on hand hygiene. We will be dealing with microorganisms that humans tend to interact with, so it is important to learn safety in lab. Even though they are not harmful, safety is always an important skill to have in a lab setting, especially when we are working independently without guidance. 2. Objectives The objectives of this lab were to work with microorganisms in the safe proper way, use the correct experiment equipment and use it in the correct way, and follow instructions to protect us in lab setting. 3. Methods and Materials Yeast packet (1) 250 mL beaker Measuring spoon 1 tsp. sugar Nutrient agar (4) 5 cm. Petri dishes 20 drops deionized water (4) Sterile transfer pipettes (4) Sterile cotton swabs Hand soap Permanent marker (4) Disposable gloves Heat Pad Stopwatch Parafilm 10% bleach solution Warm water Paper towels The method we used to discover the importance of hand hygiene was using four petri dishes with nutrient agar plates to accumulate bacteria from our hands as they were at different stages. 4. Procedures 1. Prepare the agar plates: We microwaved the nutrient agar bottle, swirling its contents every 10 seconds until it was completely liquefied. Once it was in full liquid form, we poured about 5 mL into each of the four petri dishes, filling the bottom of the dish. We then placed the lids onto the dishes to allow the agar to solidify, which took approximately an hour. Each petri dish was labeled #1-4 2. Preparing the yeast solution: We measured 230 mL of warm water into the provided 250 mL beaker. We then added 1 tsp. of sugar and the full yeast packet to the beaker. We stirred this mixture together until the ingredients dissolved and it began to froth. 3. Testing the hands: To collect the hands bacteria, we put a glove on our non-dominant hand, added 8-10 drops of the deionized water to the gloved hand and rubbed our two hands together to spread the water over our dominant hand. Once the water covered the hand, we took a cotton swab to the non-gloved hand to collect the bacteria, and then rubbed the cotton swab onto the agar plate. In petri dish #1, a plain, unchanged hand bacterium was collected. Between collecting bacteria, we washed our hands with warm water and hand soap for at least 20 seconds, using the provided hand soap and stop watch. We then repeated the same process as we did for petri dish #1, so for petri dish #2 we collected bacteria of a hand that was just washed. For petri dish #3, instead of deionized water, we added the yeast solution to our hands and collected that bacterium. Petri dish #4 contained bacteria from the yeast solution, but after the hands was just washed. Between each collection of bacteria, we mad e sure to change gloves and cotton swabs. 4. Letting the petri dishes sit: After we finished collecting bacteria, the lids were placed on the petri dishes and we sealed them with parafilm. They remained in a warm location for several days until I started to see colonies grow. I counted and recorded the number of colonies I saw. Before discarding the petri dishes, I cleaned our the agar with 10% bleach solution and let them incubate for 20 minutes then poured the bleach down the drain with running water. 5. Results Table 1: Experiment 1 Colony Growth Plate # Condition Growth 1 Water minus hand washing ++++ 2 Water plus hand washing + 3 Yeast minus hand washing +++++ 4 Yeast plus hand washing + 1. What constitutes personal protective equipment? When should personal protective equipment be worn? Why is personal protective equipment important? Personal protective equipment, commonly referred to as "PPE", is equipment worn to minimize exposure to serious workplace injuries and illnesses. Some examples of personal protective equipment include gloves, safety glasses and shoes, earplugs or muffs, hard hats, etc. This
Saturday, February 29, 2020
Banana Yoshimoto effectively portrays various common themes and motifs in both Ã¢â¬Å"HelixÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"NewlywedÃ¢â¬ , in revealing the subconscious state of mind of the respective protagonists. Although the storylines are quite different, we get the feeling that many themes and strategies such as isolation, incredible poetic effect, and the recurring use of a helper figure used to develop the characters, are relatively interchangeable. These literary patterns allow for the protagonists to both escape the shallowness that plagues them, and bring to light the deeper meaning behind their subconscious (now conscious) struggles, especially those relating to their true feelings for their personal companions. Isolation is a recurring theme that is a catalyst for the subconscious state causing the climactic epiphanies within the protagonists of both stories. This is comparably portrayed through the blatant representation of shallow urban relationships. In Ã¢â¬Å"HelixÃ¢â¬ , we witness this theme of shallowness through the personal thoughts of the protagonist at the beginning of the story. In a moment of reflection, the protagonist exclaims, I feel as if my heart will stop beating, because once I know that much about a woman, it can never work out between us. (Helix, 651) Alluding to his lover, this theme of shallowness is difficult to ignore as the narrator is transparently portraying his ability to write off a relationship on incredibly superficial grounds. In Ã¢â¬Å"NewlywedÃ¢â¬ however, Banana uses the same approach in order to portray this theme of isolation, yet goes to quite an extreme to illustrate her characterÃ¢â¬â¢s subconscious thoughts. The transformation from bum to beauty is a symbolic element of the story, and is supposed to confuse both the narrator and the reader at first, but it soon becomes clear that there is a deeper philosophical meaning to this odd occurrence. This bizarre intervention, in what seemed to be quite an ordinary context, rapidly changes the pacing and evolution of the story itself. At first, the narrator is unsure of himself, which ultimately leads the reader to question the reliability of his story: Ã¢â¬Å"I tried convincing myself that this was nothing more than a drunken nightmare. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what it was, an ugly duckling dream, a transformation from bum to beauty.Ã¢â¬ (Newlywed, 5) The isolation that surrounds the protagonists of Newlywed and Helix both physically and emotionally is what ultimately leads to the epiphanies that expose the underlying feelings towards their companions. Whether it is an empty train cabin, or the deserted city of Tokyo, Yoshimoto definitely seeks to portray the feeling of seclusion in order to emphasize the revelations that expose the protagonistsÃ¢â¬â¢ true emotions. Another common aspect in both Ã¢â¬Å"HelixÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"NewlywedÃ¢â¬ is YoshimotoÃ¢â¬â¢s use of poetic language and literary symbolism in order to develop both her characters and the story with greater depth. Despite that fact that many of the descriptions that she gives on behalf of the narrator are purely physical, and extremely shallow, it is an important aspect of both stories, as it helps lead to the dramatic changes that occur within the protagonists. In Ã¢â¬Å"NewlywedÃ¢â¬ for example, when the beautiful woman on the train asks the narrator about his wife, the first description that he gives, is purely physical: Ã¢â¬Å"SheÃ¢â¬â¢s short, and slender, and has long hair. And her eyes are real narrow, so she looks like sheÃ¢â¬â¢s smiling, even when sheÃ¢â¬â¢s angry.Ã¢â¬ (Newlywed, 6) These superficial descriptions may be attributed to the fact that the narrator was in a Ã¢â¬Å"drunken stateÃ¢â¬ , yet clearly depict him as a man that is not madly in love with his wife. By contrast, the poetic imaging in Ã¢â¬Å"HelixÃ¢â¬ reveals a man that is clearly in love with his girlfriend. Even near the beginning of the story, when he is expressing his feelings of uncertainty toward his relationship, he still gives this poetic illustration of his girlfriend: Ã¢â¬Å"She was like an evening moon, her white light almost swallowed by the gradations of pale blue sky.Ã¢â¬ (Helix, 651) This beautiful poetic image of his girlfriend is surprising to the reader, as he had just explained that he was having difficulty overcoming her idiosyncrasies. This dramatization brings the reader to the realization that the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s stream of consciousness narration is very unpredictable, yet will ultimately lead to his ability to expose his true feelings as the story develops. The author clearly likes to represent this feeling of indecision with poetic illustration as it is used several times in both stories. In Ã¢â¬Å"NewlywedÃ¢â¬ , the narrator vividly describes his mixed feelings toward his wife, Atsuko, during the peak of his epiphany-like experience: Ã¢â¬Å"For me, the beautiful, all-encompassing web spun by this creature is at once so polluted, yet so pure that I feel compelled to grab on to it. I am terrified by it but find myself unable to hide from it. At some point I have been caught up in the magical power she has.Ã¢â¬ (Newlywed, 16) Banana doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t strictly limit her poetic language to the storyÃ¢â¬â¢s character development; she also uses it to depict specific moods in order to contextualize certain situations that shake up the intensity of the story itself. Coincidentally, in both Ã¢â¬Å"HelixÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"NewlywedÃ¢â¬ , the feeling of isolation is commonly portrayed throughout both stories with the unique use of grandiose language. This allows the protagonists to avoid any outside distractions that would interfere with the personal situations that they have to deal with. Tokyo is described as being a ghost town at the beginning of Ã¢â¬Å"HelixÃ¢â¬ , for example. Ã¢â¬Å"There was not a soul on the dark streets, save the autumn wind. I encountered this emptiness at every moonlit corner I turnedÃ¢â¬ . (Helix, 651) Clearly unusual in a city like Tokyo, Yoshimoto is almost desperately taking this context to the extreme in an attempt to add an element of absurdity to the situation, and maintain a clear line of focus on the protagonist and his continuous train of thought. In Ã¢â¬Å"NewlywedÃ¢â¬ , she uses the same strategic language to create a context of solitude in order isolate the protagonist: Ã¢â¬Å"I looked around to see if anyone else had witnessed this amazing transformation, but the passengers in the neighboring cars seemed miles away, in a totally different space, separated by a transparent wall, all looking just as tired as they had moments before, indifferent to my surprise.Ã¢â¬ (Newlywed, 4) The language that Yoshimoto uses is not only unique, but allows the reader to fully contextualize themselves within the story, and fully comprehend the conscious and unconscious struggles within each storyÃ¢â¬â¢s protagonist. The use of helper figures is another way that the author both challenges and exposes the protagonists. The most evident helper figure from both stories is the seemingly god-like character that transformed from a homeless man to a beautiful woman in Ã¢â¬Å"NewlywedÃ¢â¬ . The interpretation of this symbolic figure is entirely left to the readerÃ¢â¬â¢s imagination, yet its crucial role in the storyline and to the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s character development is indisputable. This peculiar intervention is a clear example of how far Yoshimoto is willing to go to force her characters to express their thoughts. At first, it is difficult to process what the narrator is depicting; yet as the story develops, we quickly learn that this character has a specific purpose to act as catalyst to the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s epiphany-like reflection about his life, specifically in relation to marriage. After opening up to this woman about his life, he explains how he felt about what he had experienced on the train that night: Ã¢â¬Å"Deep inside, I felt timid, even scared, not about my own drunkenness or fear that my mind was playing tricks on me, but the more basic sensation of encountering something much larger than myself, and feeling immeasurably small and insignificant by comparisonÃ¢â¬ . (Newlywed, 12) From this, the reader is able to see that this man is clearly having a life changing experience that is allowing him to re-evaluate the major aspects of his life, including his relationship. This helper figure to the protagonist allowed him to bring out the subconscious struggles that seemed to weigh on him throughout the story. On the other hand, Ã¢â¬Å"HelixÃ¢â¬ presents multiple helper figures, some seeming as random and arbitrary as that of Ã¢â¬Å"NewlywedÃ¢â¬ and similarly allows the protagonist to truthfully evaluate and ultimately expose how he feels about the woman that he loves. The first helper figure that seems to startle the narrator does not take the form of a person, but rather a situational mind-cleansing seminar that his girlfriend brings to the table. She explains, Ã¢â¬Å"I guess thatÃ¢â¬â¢s the chance you take if you go to one of these sessions. You might even end up forgetting things that seemed really important to you, things you donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to forgetÃ¢â¬ . (Helix, 652) This seminar quickly becomes a euphemism for breaking up in the mind of the narrator, and his response, Ã¢â¬Å"donÃ¢â¬â¢t goÃ¢â¬ , unconsciously shows his fear of losing her. This ultimately shifts the dynamic of the story as he had previously inferred his desire to break up with his girlfriend at the beginning of the story. Yoshimoto also inserts a random explosion near the end of Ã¢â¬Å"HelixÃ¢â¬ as the lovers discuss their love for each other. Much like most of the random events that present themselves in her stories, there is a deeper meaning below what we see at the surface. This strange intervention that causes people to Ã¢â¬Å"[poor] into the [empty] streets from every doorwayÃ¢â¬ (Helix, 654) encapsulates the unpredictability that is portrayed throughout the story, and through the narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s stream of consciousness narration. This ultimately leads the story to end on a note of misunderstanding and confusion surrounding the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s comparison of love to the helix of a strand of DNA. The interventions are not only incorporated to reveal and expose the true feelings of each protagonist, but also change the dynamic of each story and help maintain a feeling of unpredictability toward the narratives themselves, as well as the unreliability of the protagonists.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Effective Crisi Communications ( ) - Thesis Proposal Example Depending on the situation, it is crucial that each organization involved in handling such situations is well aware of their next step to keep panic from spreading in public. In order to deal with a crisis situation many factors and issues need to be given consideration, for instance, how to communicate the situation to the general public without alarming. In this case, media plays an important role, so it needs to be given appropriate information by the organization (Coombs, 2007). The present paper focuses on how to effectively deal with crisis situations. The paper takes into consideration various crisis situations from the past and provides an analysis on how they were managed and what could have been done to better manage them. Moreover, the paper discusses each step of crisis management plan in detail and how to best implement it. The paper discusses the dos and donÃ¢â¬â¢ts of crisis management and also presents the consequences of taking bad decisions in such situation. Anot her important factor in crisis management, which is often sidelined, is the image of the organization managing the crisis. When planning for crisis management, it is important to keep in mind the public image of the organization, i.e. how will the general public perceive the actions taken by the organization in a crisis situation. Taking wrong decisions can tarnish the image of an organization in seconds. The organization may recover from the physical and economical harm done to it but the tarnished image will be difficult to fix, as those bad decision will be remembered and used as examples for years to come. The paper focuses on both economical and natural disasters and the role of both, the role of governmental and non-governmental institutions in a crisis situation. The changes made in the methods of dealing with crisis management are also discussed in the paper. In order to successfully explore all these topics related to crisis management, the following
Saturday, February 1, 2020
The Nature poetry of Robert Frost - Research Proposal Example Robert Frost, in his poem, Ã¢â¬Å"Fire and IceÃ¢â¬ mentions two opposite and contradictory imageries, fire and ice, both of which indicate the end of the world and therefore the end of life. The poem talks about the end of the world and the poet wonders what the source of this end could be. The two opening lines of the poem sum up the thoughts of the poem Ã¢â¬â Ã¢â¬Å"Some say the world will end in fire/Some say in iceÃ¢â¬ (Frost) Just like fire and ice are opposite elements in terms of the impact and sensation they produce, so are the consequences in the two cases. While fire signifies desire, lust and excessive passion, which might lead to destruction, ice signifies coldness, hatred and rigidity. While fire moves fast and spread in an instant, ice is slow and steady in its action. Both can destroy life and livelihood. Thinking from a literal perspective, fire might strike a forest and destroy the habitation. Also, ice can cover an entire area and thus destroy all forms of life that reside there. Passion, like fire can spread fast and works with high speed such that it may consume a person and destroy quickly. Instance of love and obsession leading to destruction and death of an individual are quite common. The concept of ice can be referred to the occurrence of the cold war. Ice signifies less or no expression and rigidity. This is even more dangerous because this coldness can eat into a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life and destroy slowly but steadily just like it worked during the cold war. While the Soviet block has its beliefs embedded in communism, the NATO nations had faith in capitalism and individuality. Thus Europe did not remain an integrated whole anymore. Just like ice might freeze into a crack and widen the fissure, thus leading to a split, Europe also met similar fate and became fragmented. (Davidson) If we think about fire, we find it at work during the early years of work and also
Friday, January 24, 2020
SERVICE SYSTEMS There are many establishments where food is served outside the home, these include: ÃË Commercial o Restaurants o CafÃ ©Ã¢â¬â¢s ÃË Non-commercial (Institutional/On-site) o Business o Government o Education ÃË Military In each type of establishment food will be served in a different way, service systems are defined by what dishes and utensils are used, but mainly by the manner of presenting the meal to the customer, clearly the type of service is defined by the desired target customer. These are the major food service systems: Table service ÃË Plate service ÃË Gueridon service ÃË Silver service ÃË Family service Other Service Types ÃË Buffet Service ÃË Take away service ÃË Counter service ÃË A la carte ÃË Table dÃ¢â¬â¢hote Specialist food service systems ÃË Hospital Service ÃË In-Flight Meal Service Type of service depends on the menu, dÃ ©cor, uniforms, table settings, ambiance and cuisine. Table Service Table service is a method of food service in which the waiter brings customersÃ¢â¬â¢ food to the table and places it in front of them. There are a number of different styles of table service: Plate service / American service All food is cooked, portioned and plated in kitchen. It is then served by a waiter to the customer, generally this is done from the right with the right hand. This type of table service reduces staff requirements compared to other types e.g. Gueridon service. Advantages ÃË Casual dining ÃË Portion control ÃË Less service skill needed Disadvantages ÃË Less personal ÃË Guests can not choose portion GuÃ ©ridon (French Service-service Ã la franÃ §aise) This is an elaborate type of service in which the guestÃ¢â¬â¢s food is prepared in the kitchen and is subsequently arranged on silver salvers, which are placed on and served from a small cart called a GuÃ ©ridon. The food is heated or flamed at the table side using a small heater placed on the cart; three courses can be served from the tableside Advantages ÃË Elegant, ÃË Showcases food, ÃË Great amount of checking of food can be done Disadvantages ÃË Need highly trained staff, ÃË High labour costs ÃË Capital investment in cart ÃË Large amount of space is required for the cart to go around the table ÃË Fewer tables in dining room. Silver Service (Russian service, or service Ã la russe) The food is prepared and portioned in the kitchen and placed onto silver platters, a dinner plate is placed in front of the customer, in general the right side is for plates and left side is for food Ã¢â¬â Counter clockwise. Served to the customer using a fork and spoon from the silver platter. This service system is used in banquets. Advantages ÃË Elegant ÃË Faster than French Service ÃË Fully cooked, hot food served at the table quickly
Thursday, January 16, 2020
Discuss How the Concepts of Ã¢â¬ËRaceÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËEthnicityÃ¢â¬â¢ Perpetuate Inequality in Australia Essay
Ã¢â¬ËAs concepts, race and nation are largely empty receptacles through and in the names of which population groups may be invented, interpreted and imagined as communities or societiesÃ¢â¬â¢ (Goldberg, 1993: 79). Race and ethnicity are major contributing factors of racism in Australia today, and the continued racist beliefs of many Australians are the driving forces of inequality in modern Australian society. To truly understand how this occurs one first needs to understand the forms and effects of racism. The modern history of Australia begins with British colonisation in 1788, and reveals many racist practises towards both immigrants and the native population. Until recently, many white Australians shared the belief that Ã¢â¬Ëcivilisation did not begin in Australia until the last quarter of the eighteenth centuryÃ¢â¬â¢ (Manning Clarke, 1962: 3). Through the spread of disease, killings and sexual exploitation, the Aboriginal population was drastically reduced and did not begin to recover until the late 1940Ã¢â¬â¢s. To add insult to injury, government policy in the 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s produced the Ã¢â¬Ëstolen generationÃ¢â¬â¢, where, for the Ã¢â¬Ëcommon goodÃ¢â¬â¢, Aboriginal children were removed from their families and placed with white foster families. This racist ideology was formalised in 1901 with the introduction of the Immigration Restriction Act 1901, more commonly known as the Ã¢â¬ËWhite AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢ policy, which excluded Ã¢â¬ËAsiansÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËcolouredsÃ¢â¬â¢ from Australian immigration. From the beginning of modern Australia, ideals of racial and ethnic superiority have shaped laws and popular opinions, as well as media representation of migrants and Ã¢â¬ËAustraliansÃ¢â¬â¢. Continued division between Ã¢â¬ËwhiteÃ¢â¬â¢ Australians and Aboriginals, Muslim-Australians and Non-English Speaking Background (NESB) Australians stem from early misconceptions and continued misinformation in a so-called Ã¢â¬ËmulticulturalÃ¢â¬â¢ Australia. Ã¢â¬Ë[Races] are said to be distinctive because members of those races allegedly share certain natural or biological characteristics. Racists believe that these biological characteristics explain why some races are naturally superior to othersÃ¢â¬â¢ (Bessant J, 2002: 220). Racism itself is a constantly evolving entity, and is both individual and collective. In modern Australia, the most common forms of racism are New Racism, Biological Racism and Class Exploitation. New Racism, although not actually new, is more commonly accepted. By not claiming any biological superiority, new racists can, with good conscience, claim that they are not racist, but are simply trying to protect national identity which could be compromised when integrated with other cultures. New Racism has been an integral part of Australia for more than 200 years. Australia moved through three distinct phases of policy on immigration. 1947-65 was all about assimilation Ã¢â¬â migrants were expected to move to Australia and become Australians, to leave everything else behind. During this time, high levels of immigration were encouraged, with the majority being British, and only 1 in 10 non-British immigrants were allowed. 1965-72 spawned the idea of integration. It became apparent that assimilation was not working and education projects were put in place to assist migrants Ã¢â¬â especially those from non English speaking backgrounds. Finally, in 1973, the Whitlam Government abolished the Immigration Restriction Act 1901 and declared Australia to be a Multicultural society. Immigration slowed and the government began to recognise the special needs of Ã¢â¬ËethnicÃ¢â¬â¢ Australians. It was during this period of acceptance that, Ã¢â¬Ëa constitutional referendum gave Aboriginal people citizenship status in 1967Ã¢â¬â¢ (Bessant 2002: p225) and allowed Aboriginal people to vote Ã¢â¬â about 60 years after women. Despite the move towards multiculturalism, race and ethnicity are still determining factors of inequality in Australia, seen mostly through Biological racism and, stemming from this, class exploitation. Biological racism, by definition, is the assumption that our basic biological differences define us in a specific role, or make one group superior to another by a simple matter of genetics. The relationship between Muslim and non-Muslim Australians is a hot topic for debate today, and a perfect example of how biological preferences shape prejudice. Stemming from the historic view of immigration, a recent two year study delved into the issues facing Muslim-Australians and their non-Muslim counterparts. Throughout the study, information was gathered from consultation with religious, academic, community and political leaders, a national random survey of 1,401 Australian voters, focus group deliberations with Muslim Australians throughout the country and a Deliberative Poll assembling 47 Muslim Australians, 329 of those surveyed in the national random survey and a range of competing experts. Concluding a weekend of deliberations, held in Canberra, Australia on March 2-4, 2007, there was agreement between Muslim and non-Muslim Australians that misperceptions and lack of understanding by both parties (many encouraged by the media) are the motivating factors in reinforcing a negative spiral of fear and aggressive behaviour. Young Australian Muslims (mostly born in Australia) are being increasingly alienated and are therefore gravitating away from mainstream Australia Ã¢â¬â the biggest danger being they may turn to more radical sects of Islam. Many non-Muslim Australians perceive a threat to national security and social harmony by the presence of Muslims in Australia, and 69% of Australians agreed that the media was the biggest factor in straining relations between Muslims and non-Muslims (Issues Deliberations Australia, 2007: 4-5). To best demonstrate the inequality in representation of migrant women in the media, exploration of the content of television advertisements is necessary. Representation of Non English Speaking Background (NESB) women in television advertisements featuring Australians is almost non-existent, and Aboriginal women are totally absent from representation. The most common representation of NESB women in the media, where it occurs, is in the role of servant (for example, advertisements for Malaysian Airlines and Air Pacific) or as comic relief (the fat ethnic cleaner in the 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s Pro Hart ad for carpet cleaner). The Ã¢â¬Ëtypical Aussie womanÃ¢â¬â¢ is usually represented as a mother. She is blonde, thin and invariably presented within a domestic environment. Advertisements are generally for Ã¢â¬ËstaplesÃ¢â¬â¢ (such as shelter, food, cleanliness, finance, health and education) and appear in prime family viewing time slots, where women are placed at the centre of the Australian home. Not only does this image exclude migrants from being an Ã¢â¬ËAussieÃ¢â¬â¢ woman, it also suggests that women in Australia should be at home, with children and concerned only with the staples of running a household. Evidence suggests that these images have a negative effect on the self-esteem of ethnic minorities, especially in children, (Berry & Mitchell-Kernan 1982) and that the negative attitudes of the mainstream population towards ethnic minority groups results from these media representations (Committee of Arab Australians 1990: HREOC 1991). These stereotypical representations of ethnic women thus add to the perpetual inequality in Australia, by pigeon-holing migrant women in a submissive role. These advertisements also reinforce the perceptions of migrants as collectively working class citizens (Issues Deliberations Australia 2007) Class division/exploitation is arguably the largest factor contributing to inequality in Australia. The basis of this is that Ã¢â¬Ëclass is not an abstract, objective quality; it has to do with the lived experiences of people, their encounters with hostility and deference and snobbery and exploitationÃ¢â¬â¢ (McGregor C 2001: 53) Many migrants become working-class citizens. Lower standards of education and training send immigrants (especially those from non English speaking backgrounds) into jobs using manual labour to earn an income. Working class people are less likely to move up the class ladder, ending up living in clusters. Working class suburbs generally produce working class people. Schools in working class areas are less likely to encourage students to go on to tertiary education and children are more inclined to Ã¢â¬Ëstick with what they knowÃ¢â¬â¢ rather than pursue a new course. Ethnicity does not automatically place an individual into any one particular class; however, migrants generally arrive in Australia with little or no money and are disadvantaged from the start. Ethnic Australians are more likely to remain in middle or working-class situations, with very few exceptions to the rule (McGregor C 2001). As previously discussed, the Australian media does little to assist ethnic Australians. By the constant portrayal of migrants in servant/submissive roles, other Australians are less likely to see migrants as anything else, and expect them to remain in these positions of servitude. Throughout AustraliaÃ¢â¬â¢s history, race and ethnicity have played a major part in ensuring that the people of Australia are not treated equally. Media representations show that only a thin, blonde woman is a true Ã¢â¬ËAussieÃ¢â¬â¢ mum, and that the role of a migrant woman is only to serve. In addition, popular opinion demonstrates that Muslim Australians are a threat to national security and social harmony; and Aboriginal people have less right to manage their own affairs than do white Australians. Although popular opinion is not necessarily indicative of reality, it does dictate the perceived reality of existence within a society. It is these perceived concepts of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s race or ethnic origins that cause inequality to prevail in modern Australian society and a huge shift in perception is required to create societal harmony. As concluded in the study by Issues Deliberations Australia, education of both migrants and other Australians is the key to equality for all citizens. Bibliography Bessant, J & Watts R 2002, Ã¢â¬ËChapter 9 Ã¢â¬â Neighbours and Nations: ethnic identity and multiculturalismÃ¢â¬â¢, in Sociology Australia, 2nd Edition, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW Burdess, N 1998, Ã¢â¬ËEssay structureÃ¢â¬â¢, in Handbook of Student skills, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Sydney Hollinsworth, D 1998, Ã¢â¬ËRacism: concepts, theories and approachesÃ¢â¬â¢, in Race and Racism in Australia, 2nd edition, Social Science Press, Katoomba, NSW. Issues Deliberations Australia/America 2007, Ã¢â¬ËFinal Report SummaryÃ¢â¬â¢, Australia Deliberates Ã¢â¬â Muslims and Non Muslims, viewed 5th October 2007, ida. org. au/UserFiles/File/AUSTRALIA%20DELIBERATES%20-%20FINAL% 20REPORT %20SUMMARY. pdf>. Martin, J 1996, Ã¢â¬ËSigns of the time: Race, sex and media representationsÃ¢â¬â¢, in The teeth are smiling Ã¢â¬â The persistence of racism in multicultural Australia, edited by Vasta, E and Castles, S, Allen & Unwin, St Leonards, NSW McGregor, C 2001, Ã¢â¬ËWhat makes class? Ã¢â¬â¢, in Class in Australia: who says Australia has no class system? , 2nd edition, Penguin Australia, Ringwood, VIC.
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Proposal to Increase High School Graduation Rates Did you know that 1.2 million high school students drop out of school every year just in the United States alone (11 Facts)? The decrease of high school graduation rates is a fairly important issue, and there are plenty of reasons to propose a change. According to the U.S. Department of Education, the current standard dropout rate of high school students is 7.4%. High school dropouts encounter way more difficulties and challenges than a high school graduate would. An average high school drop out lacks the basic education that one needs in order to be successful in life. They are more likely to face problems dealing with financial insecurity, communication skills, and of course, educational matters. With a high school diploma, one is more likely to get hired for a job, earn a higher income, and educate oneself even further. Some possible causes of high school students dropping out include stress, boredom, family problems, pregnancies , and drugs. With that said, with every issue, there is always a solution. By taking the problem at hand and looking at it from a broad perspective, we can thoroughly identify the source of the high dropout rates of U.S. high school students. There are countless factors that may be the cause of this epidemic, but a few ideas including making learning more relevant, limiting the workload given to students, and providing mandatory classes on drugs and safe sex may possibly be a solution to thisShow MoreRelatedHigh School Graduation Rates Essay1134 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesurban priority school districts, educators emphasize the importance of graduation. The expectation of all educators should be that every child can learn and will graduate. It is through graduation that society begins to combat poverty. In New Haven Public Schools, where graduation rates are higher than comparable districts in the state of Connecticut, they are not inclusive of all public school students. It is through c ollaboration with the University of Chicago and the Consortium on School Research thatRead MoreNevada s Improving Schools Of The Ccsd And Why They Are Struggling With Their Graduation Rates Essay910 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconsistently been one of the states in the United States with the lowest graduation rates. The most recent statistics show that Nevada had a 62% graduation rate in 2011, a 63% graduation rate in 2012, and a 71% graduation rate in 2013 (Ã¢â¬Å"Public High School,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). Although the graduation rate has increased by 8%, NevadaÃ¢â¬â¢s graduation rate is still significantly lower than that of the national average graduation rate at 81% (Ã¢â¬Å"Public High School,Ã¢â¬ n.d.). In his 2015 State of the State Address, Nevada governorRead MoreEssay about Academic Proposal: MichiganÃ¢â¬â¢s Graduation Rate1680 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesget a well-paying job, and live a successful life, you must graduate from high school, and get into a good college.Ã¢â¬ This quote has become one of the most reoccurring statements that teenagers and young adults hear from people such as their parents, other family members, and teachers. Unfortunately, in the state of Michigan, not everyone is taking this advice seriously. The percentage of people who graduate from high school and do not drop out before completing their education is far less than whatRead MoreLosing Our Future712 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesare Being Left Behind by the Graduation Rate Crisis By Gary Orfield , Daniel Losen, Johanna Wald and Christopher B. Swanson Every year, across the country, a dangerously high percentage of studentsÃ¢â¬âdisproportionately poor and minorityÃ¢â¬âdisappear from the educational pipeline before graduating from high school. Nationally, only about 68 percent of all students who enter 9th grade will graduate Ã¢â¬Å"on timeÃ¢â¬ with regular diplomas in 12th grade. While the graduation rate for white students is 75 percentRead MoreHow Can We Raise Test Scores?1741 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesin the school system revolves around test scores. The curriculums require kids to Ã¢â¬Å"learnÃ¢â¬ a variety of material and give teachers little time to extensively teach a student leading to some kids falling behind. This affects students when the necessary test such as the SAT and ACT spring up. Scoring well on the SAT or ACT has become the standard for who colleges accept into their programs. In Caldwell County, test scores are dropping but the graduation rate is rising. Caldwell County Schools have recordedRead MoreAn alysis Of Student Performance1552 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesOnce studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ on-track predictors are established, schools must create systems that are conducive to student success. While the indicators do not offer information to specific interventions, researchers have studied those strategies that impact growth in the areas of attendance and course performance. Mac Iver, Sheldon, Naeger and Clark (2017) summarize that student performance is most impacted by quality instruction and positive classroom climate. Teacher collaboration impacts each of these elementsRead MoreHigh School Graduation Rates in California and the United States Based on Race and Ethnicity 1379 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesBetween 1990 and 2012, high school graduation rates in 25-29-year-olds have increased from 86 to 90 percent; this overall national rise is reflected in each of the ethnicities, White, Hispanic, Black, and Asian/Pacific Islander (National Center for Education Statistics [NCES], 2013a). Prior to 20 12, nationwide standardized objective measures did not exist for measuring four-year high school graduation rates; tracking educational progress varied from state to state. Thus, state education data collectedRead MoreState The Research Problems. The Preamble Of The U.S. Declaration1581 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe United States. I would further like to suggest that none of the responses would include a bank robber, alcoholic, or a high school dropout. I am sure that there is much research that would support the idea of predisposal and environmental influences that stir the final outcomes of the question. I would like to introduce as a research problem a paradigm shift in public school curriculum development which regardless of race, creed or socio-economic status would allow the individual student to selectRead MoreHigh School Graduation Rates For Toronto District School Board1359 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesStudents from racialized backgrounds face robust barriers to their success in hig h schools. While high school graduation rates are raising as a whole, students from racialized background are graduating high school less that their peers of the dominant racial group. These students have many different variables that limit their educational outcomes. Ã¢â¬Å"While education is the institution used in America to distribute social status and economic power, and facilitate how society functions, it has not beenRead MoreCreating A Better Communication Within Parents, Students And Teachers1639 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEveryone looks forward to being in high school. Fours years you can be wild, careless, and adventuring into adult hood. The years you have class with the same people, know everyones name within the school, and not sure what your future is going to hold. Over the years there have been a decreasing amount of high school students. But there has been a increase in High school dropouts. Comparing the freshman class to the senior class at any school you will notice a dramatic decrease in students. Due